Today we dissolved electrolytes, our solute, in a solvent, water, to create a solution, salt water. A solute is any material that is dissolved by a solvent in a solution. A solvent is the material that dissolves a solute. A solution is the mixture of solutes and solvents. An electrolyte is an ionic compound that is dissociated in a ionizing solution such as water separating the electrolyte into cations and anions, creating a conductive atmosphere in the solution due to the positive and negative charges. The diagram below shows the dissociation of the electrolyte sodium chloride in water. In this experiment we created two different concentrations of salt water, one with a low ratio of salt to water and one with a high ratio of salt to water. The difference between the two can be observed qualitatively through the amount of light produced by the light bulb. A dim light showed a high concentration of light, which was the tap water, while the bright light showed a high concentration of salt to distilled water. The mathematical way to show the difference between the dim and the bright light solutions is by calculating the molarity of the salt to water. Molarity= moles of solute/Liters of solvent. The bright light contained 3.16g of NaCl in .760L of distilled water. 3.16g NaCl/58.44g/mol NaCl = .054mol of NaCl/.760LH2O= 0.0711M
The dim light contained 0.564g NaCl in .7L of distilled water.
0.564gNaCl/58.44g/mol NaCl = 0.00965mol of NaCl/.7LH2O= 0.0138M
The bright light had a molarity of 0.0711M and the dim light had a molarity of 0.0138M this is how the solutions can be told apart mathematically.
The identification of the solutions was based off observations and prior known knowledge. The Distilled water should not have lit up the light bulb because it contains no ions to carry a charge. The tap water should have given a dim light because it contained a low concentration of ions accumalated from the salt formations around the faucet. The salt water should have been the bright light because NaCl is a easily dissociated electrolyte and takes low amounts to create a sufficient amount of ions for a current to run on.