This lab was based all around intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the interactions(forces) between molecules, not to be confused with intramolecular forces which are the forces inside a molecule(covalent bonds). Dissociation is when a compound is separated into ions and surrounded by the solvent, but only certain things can dissolve into each other. Polar substances are only soluble in other polar substances and non-polar substances are only soluble in non-polar substances. Polar substances contain an uneven balance of electrons creating dipoles which means molecules have a positive and negative side. The positive side will align with the negative side and create a dipole-dipole interaction which allows substances to dissolve.Non-polar substances will not dissolve in polar solvents because they share their electrons evenly and the intermolecular forces between each other are stronger than the outside force asserted by the polar substances henceforth the polar substance can not dissolve non-polar substance. In this lab the oil, gum, and chocolate were non-polar substances able to dissolve each other, and the water, sugar, and gum coloring were
cohesion is a property of like molecules to stay together due to mutual attraction, while adhesion is a property of molecules to stick to other molecules or surfaces. Cohesion could be observed in the lab when the non-polar oil was mixed with the polar water. The oil did not dissolve in the water but rather formed in circles cohering to each other on the surface. An example of adhesion in the lab would be the water attracting the coloring of the gum and when the substance was mixed the coloring spread throughout the container attracted to the water molecules, while the gum stayed cohering to itself. Another example of adhesion would be the when the food coloring was placed on shaving cream and then transferred to the note card. The food coloring did not mix with the shaving cream but when touched with the note card the food coloring adhered to the note card, creating a colorful name tag.
Polar and non-polar solvation is also used in chromatography. Chromatography is the separation of molecules traveling through a stationary solvent. If the contents of a material need to be analyzed they can be separated through chromatography methods. As a solution travels through a stationary solvent it passes the material that is needed to be separated. Depending on the composition of the compounds within the material some are polar and others non polar. The solution moving through the stationary solvent will attract molecules of its own composition such as polar and non polar. The polar substances will travel with the liquid if it’s polar and the non polar will stay this gives distinction between the two. Another force that would attract molecules in the solvent to the paper would be adhesion, and this would give levels of distinction among polar and polar molecules.