Wavelength is the length between the crests or troughs in wave signatures. Frequency is the number of times a wave pattern is repeated within a given time. Since all light travels at the same speed wavelength and frequency effect energy of light. The shorter the wavelength the higher the frequency as the pattern occurs more often in the shorter waves. The greater the frequency the greater the energy, this means that energy and frequency are directly related and wavelength and energy are inversely related.
Light’s color can vary due to wavelength and frequency. Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and violet are the different colors that compose light from lowest energy to highest energy levels. The different colors occur between certain wavelengths, frequencies, and energies and all these are unique to different atoms due to the number of protons.
Electrons have a negative charge and protons have a positive charge. Negatives and positives attract which means electrons are being pulled towards the protons in the nucleus by attraction forces. Electrons require energy to move away from the nucleus. Electrons can reside within energy fields around the nucleus the more energy an electron gains the farther away in energy fields can it transition to. Whenever a electron transitions to a energy field closer the nucleus energy is released in the from of light(photons). Depending on which energy field the electron is on and to what energy field it transitions to energy and color can be determined. The resting level of energy for an electron is called ground state, and when an electron gains energy and moves away in higher energy levels is called excited state. For visible light to be emitted from electron transitions the lowest transition must be level 2 anything below that level becomes ultra violet rays. The more protons atoms have the more energy is required for electrons to transfer between energy states and this results in colors emitted from different elements to be different or the same but at different frequencies, wavelengths, and energies.