Coulomb’s law talks about the conditions an electron faces as it leaves an atom, and it has three main points. 1. Coulomb’s law states that protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge. This means that there is a force of attraction between both the particles. 2. Distance is indirectly related to the attractive force between particles. Which means the farther away electrons are from the protons in the nucleus the smaller the attractive force between the particles. 3.Charge is directly related to force. Meaning that the greater the number or size of particles the greater the force of attraction.
Removing electrons from atoms is an endothermic process as it takes energy to overcome the force of attraction of protons and leave the atom completely. It is not exothermic because this would mean a loss of energy and it takes energy to break bonds.
The organization of electrons can cause the amounts of energy needed for an electron to be removed from an atom to differ. Electrons found between protons and the escaping electron act as a shield to the attractive force asserted by the protons by a 1:1 ratio. For example there is 3 protons and to electrons between the protons and the escaping electron. Only one proton is exerting an attractive force upon the escaping electron.
The excitation of an electron is different from the removal of an electron. Exciting an electron means that energy is added to an electron and it jumps to a higher energy level. Removing an electron means that energy is added to an electron and it completely leaves an atom with no transitions to any energy level within the atom’s orbitals.
Coulomb’s equation brings all these ideas together and calculates force(energy) needed to leave an atom. Coulomb’s Equation is Force is equal to a constant multiplied to charges one and two divided by distance squared.